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Haver Indicating Future Action

August 21, 2019

Finally, Haver can also be used indicate that someone will do something at some point in the future. To use it like this, we conjugate the verb in the Present Indicative tense and add the preposition “de”. Examples:

Hei de visitar a minha avó.I shall visit my grandmother.

Hás de ir a França um dia.You shall go to France one day.

When used in this fashion, Haver is a rather formal way of describing a future action or intention.

Haver can also be used in a similar fashion to make a request. When Haver + de is used to ask for something, it implies “in the future, as soon as you have the time/it is convenient”. Confused? Let’s look at a couple of examples:

Haver to Indicate the Past

August 21, 2019

Another common use of Haver is to indicate that an amount of time has passed before the present moment. It roughly corresponds to the English adverb “ago”, or to other expressions which signal that a certain measure of time has passed.

When used in this way, Haver is only conjugated in the third person singular, “há”. This is known as Haver‘s “impersonal” use: the verb doesn’t have a specific subject, so there are no other conjugations. Let’s have a look at how it works. Examples:

As piscinas fecharam cinco minutos.The pools closed five minutes ago.

Há muito que não comia panquecas assim.I haven’t had pancakes like those in a long time.

Estou à espera do cartão seis meses.I’ve been waiting for that card for six months.

Similarly, Haver can be used to ask how long something has been going on for. Examples:

Haver as “To Exist”/”To Have”

August 21, 2019

The first and easiest of Haver’s many uses is “to exist”. That is to say, the verb indicates that something exists somewhere. In English, the verb “to be” would typically be used in these contexts. Examples:

dois cadernos na tua secretária.There are two notebooks on your desk.

uma laranja podre no cesto da fruta.There is a rotten orange in the fruit basket.

cobertores no sótão.There are blankets in the attic.

This use of Haver is very easy to identify since sentences are usually structured as Haver + Object + Location of said object.

Sometimes, the location not mentioned. In this case, Haver sometimes means not only that something exists, but that that thing is for sale or being offered. Examples:

The Verb Haver

August 20, 2019

If you’ve been learning Portuguese for a while, and if you’ve done our unit on ~ER Verbs (if you haven’t, go do it now!), you might’ve noticed a glaring absence: the verb Haver (“to exist”). Along with Ser and Estar, Haver is one of the most essential and versatile Portuguese auxiliary verbs.

For the purposes of this lesson, let’s look at the two most common tenses of the verb:

INDICATIVE (Indicativo)

Present (Presente)Past Perfect (Pretérito Perfeito)
Euhei

 

houve
Tuháshouveste
Ele/Elahouve
Nóshavemoshouvemos
Vóshaveishouvestes
Eles/Elashãohouveram

Applying For A Portuguese NIF Number

August 16, 2019

Portuguese bureaucracy can be very complicated, but applying for a NIF is at least a relatively gentle introduction. If you are going to live and/or work in Portugal, this number will chase you around, as you’ll need it for any kind of contract (opening a bank account, buying or renting a house, utilities, Internet, employment, etc…), so getting it should be very high on your to-do list.

What is a NIF number?

NIF stands for Número de Identificação Fiscal (also called Número de Contribuinte) and it is a 9-digit unique personal identifier for tax purposes. This tax number is necessary for both individual and collective persons/companies, but for companies it is actually called NIPC (Número de Identificação de Pessoa Coletiva – Collective Person ID Number) instead of NIF.

Apart from its identification purposes, the NIF is also a way of fighting tax evasion and fraud. For example, it has become very common for businesses to ask customers if they want to include their NIF on receipts, because it results in deductions on their tax returns and may even grant them big prizes, as receipt numbers are drawn every month in a national fiscal lottery.

Quer contribuinte na fatura?Would you like your tax number on the receipt?

Who can ask for a NIF and where do you get it?

The NIF can be requested by any citizen at any given time, whether or not you’re a national or even a resident. However, if you’re a non-resident and non-EU/EEA citizen, you will need to

How to Become a Freelancer in Portugal and Issue Recibos Verdes

August 16, 2019

Ever heard of Recibos Verdes? The name translates to “green receipts/invoices”. They are well-known to anyone working as a registered freelancer in Portugal and are the means through which you can formally invoice clients and declare your income for tax and social security purposes.

You can register as a freelancer and issue Recibos Verdes online on the Portuguese tax authority’s platform (Portal das Finanças). However, you may need to recruit the help of a knowledgeable Portuguese speaker, because while it contains several help guides in English, the website itself is all in Portuguese and you do need to be careful filling out the registration form.

You can also register in person at any local Serviço de Finançastax office (locations here) or Loja do CidadãoCitizen Shop (locations here).

Requisites to Register as a Freelancer

This is what you should need in order to abrir uma atividade independenteopen an independent activity, register as a freelancer:

Infinitivo Impessoal vs Pessoal

August 16, 2019

The Infinitivo is one of the three formas nominais (nominal forms) verbs can have. These nominal forms do not express the verb tense, mode, and person by themselves, as they are dependent on the context in which they appear.

The infinitivo expresses the idea of an action and it could be thought of as the base form of the verb.

There are two types of infinitivo: Impessoal (Impersonal) and Pessoal (Personal). We’ll dive into each type below and explain the differences.

Infinitivo Impessoal

The Infinitivo Impessoal (impersonal infinitive) is invariable, meaning it appears without any conjugation as it doesn’t have a subject.

É obrigatório lavar as mãos.Washing hands is mandatory.

The example above is not referring to anyone specific, just to the general idea of “washing”.

However, the infinitive can also appear as the subject of a sentence itself.

Errar é humano.To err is human.

Amar é viver.To love is to live.

Again here, the verbs refer to the general idea of the action, rather than to a specific person doing the action.

Infinitivo Pessoal

The Infinitivo Pessoal (personal infinitive) differs because there is a known subject. It is formed by adding the terminations -es (tu) , -mos (nós), -des (vós) and -em (eles, elas, vocês) to the Infinitivo Impessoal. (Because the 2nd person plural vós is rarely used nowadays, we’ll focus our attention on the other three.)

The following table shows how the Infinitivo Pessoal is conjugated with three different verbs.

Ser vs. Estar – How to Use Estar

July 24, 2019

By now, “Ser” should be more familiar to you. But what about estar to be non-permanent state? Let’s have a closer look at some of the contexts in which you use the verb “Estar”.

For Emotions

What are you feeling? “Estar” is used to convey feelings. Example:

Estou tão triste. I am so sad.

For Weather

“Estar” is often used for weather. Example:

Hoje está calor. It is hot today.

Ser vs. Estar – How to Use Ser 1

July 24, 2019

We know, we know: no matter how essential they are, Ser and Estar are two difficult verbs. If the simplified distinction in the previous lesson wasn’t enough for you, you’re in luck. In this lesson, we’ll have a more detailed look at how to use the verb ser to be permanent state , with plenty of examples to help you. So, what is “ser” used for? Well…

For Names

“Ser” is most often used in presenting ourselves to others. Example:

O meu nome é Daniela. My name is Daniela.

For Addresses and Telephone Numbers

“Ser” is a very handy verb when you need to tell someone your personal details. Examples:

O endereço dele é Rua Afonso Henriques, nº 20. His address is Rua Afonso Henriques, no. 20.

O número deles é o 276 123 456. Their number is 276 123 456.

For Countries and Nationalities

“Ser” is needed when expressing someone’s nationality. Examples:

Irregular Verbs -IR

July 24, 2019

Let’s start out with a regular verb example, just to clean your palate 🍷:

abrir

to open

Indicativo

Abrir – Indicativo – Presente

A loja abre muito cedo.
The store opens very early.

  • eu abro
  • I open
  • tu abres
  • you open
  • ele / ela abre
  • he / she opens
  • você abre
  • you formal open
  • nós abrimos
  • we open
  • eles / elas abrem
  • they feminine

” class=”glossaryLink”>fem. open

  • vocês abrem
  • you

    ir

    to go

    Indicativo

    Ir – Indicativo – Presente

    Nós vamos lá muito.
    We go there a lot.

    • eu vou
    • I go
    • tu vais
    • you go
    • ele / ela vai
    • he / she goes
    • você vai
    • you formal go
    • nós vamos
    • we go
    • eles / elas vão
    • they feminine

    ” class=”glossaryLink”>fem. go

  • vocês vão
  • you Read More ›
  • Buying a Home in Portugal

    July 17, 2019

    In recent years, Portugal has become more popular with foreigners looking to buy a home. Housing prices dropped significantly after an economic downturn, but as the economy recovers, property prices are beginning to rise again, especially in certain areas. Still, interest rates remain low and many are drawn to the climate, quality of life, relatively low cost of living, rich culture, and peaceful atmosphere of Portugal. We’ve put together this guide to help you navigate the home-buying process in Portugal.

    Irregular Verbs -ER

    July 9, 2019

    Let’s start out with a regular verb:

    escrever

    to write

    Indicativo

    Escrever – Indicativo – Presente

    Tu escreves poemas lindos.
    You write beautiful poems.

    • eu escrevo
    • I write
    • tu escreves
    • you write
    • ele / ela escreve
    • he / she writes
    • você escreve
    • you formal write
    • nós escrevemos
    • we write
    • eles / elas escrevem
    • they feminine

    ” class=”glossaryLink”>fem. write

  • vocês escrevem
  • you

    ser

    to be (permanent condition)

    Indicativo

    Ser – Indicativo – Presente

    Tu és uma boa pessoa.
    You’re a good person.

    • eu sou
    • I am
    • tu és
    • you are
    • ele / ela é
    • he / she is
    • você é
    • you formal are
    • nós somos
    • we are
    • eles / elas são
    • they feminine

    ” class=”glossaryLink”>fem. are

  • vocês são
  • you Read More ›
  • Regular Verbs in the Present Tense: IR Verbs

    June 3, 2019

    As mentioned, verbs are split into three groups:

    • Group 1: verbs ending in -AR
    • Group 2: verbs ending in -ER
    • Group 3: verbs ending in -IR

    Now we’ll deal with the 3rd and final group:

    IR Verb Endings

    The -IR verb conjugations are very similar to the -ER verbs, except for one little difference… can you spot it? 🤔

    Masculine vs. Feminine & Indefinite Articles + Plurals

    May 8, 2019

    Indefinite Articles – How to Say “a / an / some” In Portuguese

    We just learned how to say “the car”, but what if you want to talk about “a car” in general? This is called an indefinite article (artigo indefinido), because we’re talking about an undefined car, rather than a specific instance of a car. In English, we use “a”, “an”, and the plural form “some”.

     

    In Portuguese, there are 4 indefinite articles: um, umauns, umas. Once again, it depends on the gender and plurality:

    • Masculine, singular: um carro a car
    • Feminine, singular: uma mesa a table
    • Masculine, plural: uns carros some cars
    • Feminine, plural: umas mesas some tables

    When to use Indefinite Articles

    We use artigos indefinidos when we want to talk about a subject or an object without specifying it.

    Numbers – Collective Numerals

    May 8, 2019

    Collective numbers are the ones that even in their singular form indicate a group of beings or things:

    Eles são um quarteto famoso They are a famous quartet

    They work as a noun and are variable in number:

    A médica salvou várias dezenas de pessoas The doctor saved several dozens of people

    Numbers – Fractional Numerals

    May 7, 2019

    In this lesson, we’ll learn about fractional numerals. Fractional numerals (quantificadores fraccionários) define exact fractions, or parts, of a given thing. Let’s have a look at them.

    Quantificador fraccionárioFractional numeralQuantificador fraccionárioFractional numeral
    meio/metadehalfdezasseis avossixteenth (part)
    terçothirddezassete avosseventeenth (part)
    quartofourthdezoito avoseighteenth (part)
    quintofifthdezanove avosnineteenth (part)
    sextosixthvinte avos/vigésimotwentieth (part)
    sétimoseventhtrigésimothirtieth (part)
    oitavoeighthquadragésimofourtieth (part)
    nononinthquinquagésimofiftieth (part)
    décimotenthsexagésimosixtieth (part)
    onze avos/undécimoeleventh (part)septuagésimoseventieth (part)
    doze avos/duodécimotwelfth (part)octogésimoeightieth (part)
    treze avosthirteenth (part)nonagésimoninetieth (part)
    quatorze avosfourteenth (part)centésimohundredth (part)
    quinze avosfifteenth (part)milésimothousandth (part)

    Fractionals, just like multipliers, are paired with the preposition “de” or its prepositional contraction.

    Numbers – Multiplier Numerals

    May 7, 2019

    Multipliers define multiples of a given thing or person. Let’s have a look at a few.

    Quantificador MultiplicativoMultiplier
    duplo/dobrotwice/double/duplicate
    triplo/tríplicethrice/triple/triplicate
    quádruploquadruple
    quíntuploquintuple
    sêxtuplosextuple, hextuple
    sétuploseptuple, heptuple

    Multipliers are always preceded by the definite article “o”, and they’re paired with the preposition “de” or its prepositional contractions.

    Examples:

    Tenho agora o dobro da tua idade. I am now twice your age.

    Montemor tem agora o quádruplo dos habitantes. Montemor now has four times as many inhabitants.

    Numbers – Ordinal Numerals

    May 7, 2019

    Ordinal numbers tell us the order people, animals, or things take in a specific series:

    A mulher foi a primeira a chegar The woman was the first to arrive.

    They are variable in gender and number:

    O homem foi o primeiro a chegar The man was the first to arrive

    Numbers – Cardinal Numerals

    May 7, 2019

    What do they do?

    Cardinal numbers simply indicate the number of people, animals, or things.

    Eu tenho três irmãos I have three brothers

    Ela tem dez pássaros She has ten birds

    Vocês compram vinte laranjas You buy twenty oranges

    They are invariable, except…

    The majority of cardinal numbers are invariable, however, um one, dois two and the centenas hundreds, starting at 200, do depend on the gender of the noun.

    Numbers

    May 3, 2019

    In the next 3 units, we’ll learn about Portuguese números numbers or numerais numerals.

    Números are just one type of quantificadores quantifiers, but they are so important that we thought they deserved their own unit. (All the other types of quantificadores will be explained in a later unit.) Números tell us the specific, numeric amount of a particular something.

    Quantifiers – Existential Quantifiers

    May 2, 2019

    In this lesson, we’ll learn about Portuguese existential quantifiers. Existential quantifiers (quantificadores existenciais) are quantifiers that apply to a certain group or certain quantity of elements (nouns), but don’t specify an exact quantity or amount.

    Muito, Muita, Muitos, Muitas

    Muito (masculine) and muita (feminine) are the singular form equivalents to the English “many”, “very”, “much” or “a lot”. Examples:

    Tenho muito medo! I’m very afraid!

    Isto ainda é muita coisa para levar. This is still a lot to carry.

    Quantifiers – Universal Quantifiers

    May 1, 2019

    In this lesson, we’ll learn about Portuguese universal quantifiers. Universal quantifiers (quantificadores universais) are quantifiers that apply to every element of a given group.

    Todo, Toda, Todos, Todas

    Todo (masculine) and toda (feminine) are the singular form equivalents to “all”, “whole”, “every”, or “entire” in English.  Examples:

    Limpei este quarto todo. I cleaned this entire room.

    Passei a manhã toda a estudar. I spent the whole morning studying.

    Todos (masculine) and todas (feminine) are the plural forms of todo and toda, and maintain the same meaning.

    Quantifiers – Interrogative Quantifiers

    April 23, 2019

    In this lesson, we’ll take a look at the last subset of quantifiers: interrogative quantifiers. Interrogative quantifiers (quantificadores interrogativos) introduce questions about quantities. A question using an interrogative quantifier is invariably answered using another quantifier.

    Quanto, Quanta, Quantos, Quantas

    Remember these? Quanto (masculine) and quanta (feminine) are singular forms equivalents to “how much” in English. Examples:

    Quanto gastaste ontem? How much did you spend yesterday?

    É precisa quanta lã para umas luvas? How much wool is needed for a pair of gloves?