The verb haver can also be used indicate that someone will do something at some point in the future. To use it like this, we conjugate the verb in the Present Indicative tense and add the preposition de. This is a rather formal way of describing a future action or intention.
Hei de visitar a minha avó.I shall visit my grandmother.
Hás de ir a França um dia.You shall go to France one day.
Haver can also be used in a similar fashion to make a request. When haver + de is used to ask for something, it implies “in the future, as soon as you have the time/it is convenient”. Let’s look at a few examples:
Another common use of haver is to indicate that an amount of time has passed before the present moment.
When used in this way, haver is only conjugated in the third person singular: há. This is known as haver‘s impersonal use because the verb doesn’t have a specific subject. Thus, there are no other conjugations. It roughly corresponds to the English adverb ago, or to other expressions which signal that a certain amount of time has passed. Let’s have a look at some examples:
As piscinas fecharam há cinco minutos.The pools closed five minutes ago.
Há muito que não comia panquecas assim.I haven’t had pancakes like those in a long time.
Estou à espera do cartão há seis meses.I’ve been waiting for that card for six months.
Similarly, haver can be used to ask how long something has been going on for. Examples:
The first and easiest of the many meanings of haver is to exist. That is to say, the verb indicates that something “is” or “exists” somewhere. In English, the verb there to be would typically be used in these contexts. When used in this sense, the verb haver is impersonal and has very few usable forms. It can’t be conjugated like other verbs.
Há dois cadernos na tua secretária.There are two notebooks on your desk.
Há uma laranja podre no cesto da fruta.There is a rotten orange in the fruit basket.
Há cobertores no sótão.There are blankets in the attic.
This use of haver is very easy to identify since sentences are usually structured as Haver + Object + Location of said object, as in the examples above.
The location is not always mentioned, however. In this context, haver sometimes implies that something is for sale or being offered.
If you’ve been learning Portuguese for a while, and if you’ve done our unit on -ER Verbs (if you haven’t, go do it now!), you may have noticed a glaring absence: the verb haver , one of the most essential Portuguese verbs.
Haver is an odd beast, as we shall see in the next two lessons. The verb haver is mainly used in three different ways: to indicate that something exists, to indicate that something has happened in the past, or to say that something will happen in the future.
When used as a main verb to indicate the existence of something, the verb haver is impersonal and can’t be conjugated!
haviathere was, there used to be
haveráthere will be
But it is often used as an auxiliary verb, in which case it can be conjugated in different tenses and persons. In practice, it is only used in this way in very few tenses.
For the purposes of this lesson, let’s see three of the most common tenses of the verb:
Portuguese bureaucracy can be very complicated, but applying for a NIF is at least a relatively gentle introduction. If you are going to live and/or work in Portugal, this number will chase you around, as you’ll need it for any kind of contract (opening a bank account, buying or renting a house, utilities, Internet, employment, etc.), so getting one should be very high on your to-do list.
What is a NIF number?
NIF stands for Número de Identificação FiscalTax Identification Number and it is commonly called Número de ContribuinteTaxpayer Number. It is a 9-digit unique personal identifier used for tax purposes. This tax number is necessary for both individual and collective persons/companies, but for companies it is actually called Número de Identificação de Pessoa ColetivaCollective Person ID Number or NIPC, instead of NIF.
Apart from its identification purposes, the NIF is also a way of fighting tax evasion and fraud. It has become very common for businesses to ask customers if they want to include their NIF on receipts because it results in deductions on their tax returns and may even grant them big prizes, as receipt numbers are drawn every month in a national fiscal lottery.
Quer contribuinte na fatura?Would you like your tax number on the receipt?
Who can ask for a NIF and where do you get it?
The NIF can be requested by anyone at any time, whether or not you’re a national or even a resident. However, if you’re a non-resident and non-EU/EEA citizen, you will need to
Ever heard of Recibos Verdes? The name translates to “green receipts/invoices”. They are well-known to anyone working as a registered freelancer in Portugal and are the means through which you can formally invoice clients and declare your income for tax and social security purposes.
You can register as a freelancer and issue Recibos Verdes online on the Portuguese tax authority’s platform (Portal das Finanças). However, you may need to recruit the help of a knowledgeable Portuguese speaker, because while it contains several help guides in English, the website itself is all in Portuguese and you do need to be careful filling out the registration form.
You can also register in person at any local Serviço de Finançastax office (locations here) or Loja do CidadãoCitizen Shop (locations here).
Registering as a Freelancer
This is what you should need in order to abrir uma atividade independenteopen an independent activity, register as a freelancer:
The infinitivoinfinitive is one of the three formas nominaisnominal forms verbs can have. These nominal forms do not express the verb tense, mode, and person by themselves, as they are dependent on the context in which they appear.
The infinitive expresses the idea of an action and it could be thought of as the base form of the verb.
There are two types of infinitives: impessoalimpersonal and pessoalpersonal. We’ll dive into each type below and explain the differences.
The infinitivo impessoalimpersonal infinitive is invariable, meaning it appears in its full form (without any conjugation) as it doesn’t have a subject.
É obrigatório lavar as mãos.Washing hands is mandatory.
The example above is not referring to anyone specific, just to the general idea of “washing”.
However, the infinitive can also appear as the subject of a sentence itself.
Errar é humano.To err is human.
Amar é viver.To love is to live.
Again, the verbs refer to the general idea of the action, rather than to a specific person doing the action.
The infinitivo pessoalpersonal infinitive differs because there is a known subject. It is formed by adding the following endings to the impersonal infinitive:
-des (vós), or
-em (eles, elas, vocês)
(Because the 2nd person plural vós is rarely used nowadays, we’ll focus our attention on the other three.)
The following table shows how the personal infinitive is conjugated with three different verbs.
By now, serto be permanent should be more familiar to you, but what about estarto be temporary? The verb estar is used for non-permanent (i.e. temporary) conditions, traits, or things. Let’s explore many of the common contexts in which you would use estar.
We know, we know… No matter how essential they are, serto be permanent and estarto be temporary are two difficult verbs. If the simplified distinction in the previous lesson wasn’t enough for you, you’re in luck. In this lesson, we’ll have a more detailed look at how and when to use the verb serto be permanent , with plenty of examples to help you.
We use ser to introduce ourselves to others.
O meu nome é Daniela.My name is Daniela.
Addresses and Telephone Numbers
O endereço dele é Rua Afonso Henriques, nº 20.His address is Rua Afonso Henriques, no. 20.
O número deles é o 276 123 456.Their number is 276 123 456.
In recent years, Portugal has become more popular with foreigners looking to buy a home. Housing prices dropped significantly after an economic downturn, but as the economy recovers, property prices are beginning to rise again, especially in certain areas. Still, interest rates remain low and many are drawn to the climate, quality of life, relatively low cost of living, rich culture, and peaceful atmosphere of Portugal. We’ve put together this guide to help you navigate the home-buying process in Portugal.
Tu escreves poemas lindos. You write beautiful poems.
ele / ela escreve
he / she writes
you formal write
eles / elas escrevem
they masc. / they fem. write
you pl. write
The verb stem escrev- is combined with the regular -ER present tense endings (-o, –es, –e, –emos, –em).
Irregular -ER Verbs
For an irregular example, let’s have a look at serto be permanent, which you’ve likely seen by now. This verb is a mess! Not only does it have non-standard endings, but it doesn’t even have a fixed verb stem (that is, the beginning part of the conjugation is different).
We just learned how to say “the car” using definite articles, but what if you want to talk about “a car” in general? This is called an artigo indefinidoindefinite article, because we’re talking about an undefined car, rather than a specific instance of a car.
In English, we use a, an, and the plural form some.
In Portuguese, there are 4 indefinite articles: uma, anumaa, anunssomeumassome
Once again, the specific form used depends on the gender and number of the noun:
Masculine, singular: um carroa car
Feminine, singular: uma mesaa table
Masculine, plural: uns carrossome cars
Feminine, plural: umas mesassome tables
When to use Indefinite Articles
We use indefinite articles when we want to talk about a subject or an object without specifying a particular one. For example:
The majority of cardinal numbers are invariable, meaning they only have one form. There are a few important exceptions, however: umone, doistwo and the centenashundreds, starting at 200, do change form depending on the gender of the noun. For example:
In this unit, we’ll learn about Portuguese númerosnumbers or numeraisnumerals.
Números are just one type of quantificadoresquantifiers, but they are so important that we thought they deserved their own unit. (All the other types of quantifiers will be explained in a later unit.) Números tell us the specific, numeric amount of a particular something.
In this lesson, we’ll learn about quantificadores existenciaisexistential quantifiers. Existential quantifiers provide information about quantity without specifying an exact quantity or amount. In English, we would use words like many, few, some, so much, another, several, and plenty. Let’s take a look at how to express these concepts in Portuguese.
Muito, Muita, Muitos, Muitas
Muito and muita are the singular form equivalents to many, very, much, or a lot. Examples:
muitovery, a lot masc.
Tenho muito medo!I’m very afraid!
muitavery, a lot fem.
Isto ainda é muita coisa para levar.This is still a lot to carry.
In this lesson, we’ll learn about quantificadores universaisuniversal quantifiers. Universal quantifiers are quantifiers that apply to every element of a given group. In English, this would include words like all, none, any, both, and every. Let’s learn about each of the words used to express these concepts in Portuguese.
Todo, Toda, Todos, Todas
Todo and toda are the singular form equivalents to all, whole, every, or entire in English.
todoall, entire masculine
Limpei este quarto todo.I cleaned this entire room.
todaall, entire feminine
Passei a manhã toda a estudar.I spent the whole morning studying.
Todos and todas are the plural forms of todo and toda.
In this lesson, we’ll take a look at the last subset of quantifiers: quantificadores interrogativosinterrogative quantifiers. Interrogative quantifiers introduce questions related to quantities. These types of questions are invariably answered using another quantifier. The interrogative quantifiers include:
Remember quanto and quanta from the previous lesson? As a relative quantifier, we used these words in the context of “as much as”, but as an interrogative quantifier, they have a slightly different meaning. When used to question a quantity, quanto and quanta are the singular form equivalents to “how much” in English.
Quanto gastaste ontem?How much did you spend yesterday?