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Past Participles & Auxiliary Verbs

April 27, 2020

In this lesson we’re going to tackle past participles in Portuguese, i.e. particípios passados paused audio playing audio Play slow audio Play normal audio past participles

What is a past participle? A past participle is a verb form that functions similarly to an adjective (e.g. “I am interested in that”), or that goes along with an auxiliary verb to form different verb tenses or use the passive voice (e.g. “The bill has been paid“, “The bill was paid“). Let’s look at a few examples to better understand how to use past participles in Portuguese:

Aquele filme? Já o tinha visto, sim. paused audio playing audio Play slow audio Play normal audio That film? I had already seen it, yes.

Tínhamos escrito ao professor para lhe pedirmos as notas. paused audio playing audio Play slow audio Play normal audio We had written to the professor to ask for our grades.

Notice that, in the two examples above, you needed to use another verb before using the past participles “seen” and “written”.

Double Past Participles

April 26, 2020

In this lesson, we’ll have a look at particípios passados duplos paused audio playing audio Play slow audio Play normal audio double past participles. ‘Double’ here means that some verbs can take the form of either a regular or an irregular participle, depending on the auxiliary verb being used with them.

Remember those verbs we marked off with an asterisk in the Irregular Participles learning note? They were ganhar paused audio playing audio Play slow audio Play normal audio to win, to earn, gastar paused audio playing audio Play slow audio Play normal audio to spend, and pagar paused audio playing audio Play slow audio Play normal audio to pay. These are verbs that have double participles. Let’s see them in action:

Ganhar

Eles deviam ter ganhado o campeonato. paused audio playing audio Play slow audio Play normal audio They should have won the championship.

O campeonato foi ganho pela outra equipa. paused audio playing audio Play slow audio Play normal audio The championship was won by the other team.

Gastar

Irregular Past Participles

April 26, 2020

In this lesson, we’ll have a look at particípios passados irregulares paused audio playing audio Play slow audio Play normal audio irregular past participles in Portuguese, i.e. past participles which behave in a unique and unpredictable way, instead of following the typical rules. Let’s see an example:

Eu abri a janela. A janela foi aberta. paused audio playing audio Play slow audio Play normal audio I opened the window. The window was opened.

If you are fresh off the previous lesson, perhaps you expected the past participle of abrir paused audio playing audio Play slow audio Play normal audio to open to follow the rule for -IR verbs, and be “abrida”. Right? But being a mischievous irregular verb, instead of “abrido”/”abrida”, the verb abrir becomes “aberto”/”aberta”! Similarly, if we look at the past participle of fazer paused audio playing audio Play slow audio Play normal audio to do, to make we get:

Regular Past Participles

April 26, 2020

In Portuguese, there are three types of past participles:

  • Particípios passados regulares paused audio playing audio Play slow audio Play normal audio Regular past participles,
  • Particípios passados irregulares paused audio playing audio Play slow audio Play normal audio Irregular past participles, and
  • Duplos particípios passados paused audio playing audio Play slow audio Play normal audio Double past participles

In this lesson, we’ll have a look at regular past participles, that is to say, past participles which behave in a predictable way. These participles depend on the verb’s ending, i.e. they have a specific ending depending on whether they’re the past participle of an -AR, -ER or -IR verb.

-AR Verbs

For -AR verbs – andar paused audio playing audio Play slow audio Play normal audio to walk, falar paused audio playing audio Play slow audio Play normal audio to speak, amar paused audio playing audio Play slow audio Play normal audio to love, for instance – the regular ending of the past participle is ‘-ado’, which is added to the root of the verb. Examples:

Os alunos tinham andado até ao instituto. paused audio playing audio Play slow audio Play normal audio The students had walked up to the institute.