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Talking About the Future in Portuguese

May 15, 2018

Below we will discuss the three main methods to talk about a future fact or inevitability in Portuguese:

1. Using Ir + Infinitive

Similar to the English construction, to discuss the future, Portuguese uses the verb ir to go, followed by a verb in its infinitive form.

Aside from very formal or literary contexts, this method is the most common. It’s also the easiest, because as long as you can conjugate ir in the present tense, you just need to know the next verb’s infinitive form. Let’s see how this works with the verbs correr and chegar in the examples below.

The Verb “Pôr”: In a Group of Its Own?

May 1, 2018

You may be surprised to learn that all verbs ending in -OR are actually part of the same group as verbs that end in –ER. 🤔 These “-por” verbs are considered part of the -ER group because of their Latin origins: pôr used to be written as poer (i.e. with an -ER ending), which comes from the Latin word ponere. Let’s look at the present tense conjugations, which are irregular:

Talking about Quantity

May 1, 2018

These are three simple, common words used to talk about quantities in Portuguese:

muito many, much, a lot

pouco few, a little

algum some, a few

When talking about countable quantities (which usually end in “-s” in English as well as Portuguese), muito, pouco and algum all change according to gender and number:

Eu tenho muitos amigos. I have many friends.

Poucas pessoas sabem o segredo. Few people know the secret.

Eles compraram algumas prendas. They bought some gifts.

With uncountable nouns (such as virtues, qualities, or time, which usually don’t end is “-s” in either language), muito, pouco and algum stay in their singular form, while maintaining gender agreement:

Regular -ER Verbs in the Present Tense

May 1, 2018

As mentioned, Portuguese verbs are split into three groups:

Now we’ll deal with the 2nd group: -ER verbs!

Regular -ER Verb Endings

Below are some examples of regular -ER verbs in the present tense. Notice the endings (-o, -es, -e, -emos, -em) which are added after each verb’s stem (beb, vend, and viv).

Regular -AR Verbs in the Present Tense

May 1, 2018

In Portuguese, verbs are split into three groups:

In this article, we’ll cover the first group: -AR Verbs!

Common regular verbs ending in -AR include falar to speak, pensar to think and amar to love

When the conjugation is regular, the endings of conjugated -AR verbs follow the same pattern. Below, we’ll use the Portuguese regular verb falar to speak in the present tense as an example:

falar

to speak

Indicativo

Falar – Indicativo – Presente

Eu falo com ela todos os dias.
I speak with her everyday.

  • eu falo
  • I speak
  • tu falas
  • you speak
  • ele / ela fala
  • he / she speaks
  • você fala
  • you formal speak
  • nós falamos
  • we speak
  • eles / elas falam
  • they masc. / they fem. speak
  • vocês falam
  • you pl. speak

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Once you memorize the endings for one regular -AR verb conjugation (-o, -as, -a, -amos, -am), you can follow the same pattern to conjugate all the other -AR verbs… (unless they’re irregular 🙈).

Introduction to Portuguese Adjectives

May 1, 2018

Adjetivos Adjectives are words that describe a noun, assigning it a quality, state, appearance, or other property. Adverbs are also used to describe, but instead of nouns, they modify verbs, adjectives, and other adverbs. In Portuguese, using adjectives requires that you consider the gender and number of the word being modified, as well as the word order of the sentence.

Many different types of words can fall into the category of adjectives, including colours, shapes, materials, and nationalities. They are the words that let us distinguish between concepts like:

When to Use Dele/Dela vs. Seu/Sua

March 30, 2018

How do we decide when to use dele, dela, deles, delas  vs.  seu, sua, seus, suas?

Possessives formed with de are less ambiguous: they agree strictly with the subject, not with the object. In contrast, seu and its derivatives agree with the object, so we are not able to differentiate between the several possible 3rd person subjects without extra context.

Dele, dela, deles, delas

  • dele his – When the subject is ele (him).
  • dela her – When the subject is ela (her).
  • deles their – When the subject is eles (them, a group with at least one male).
  • delas their – When the subject is elas (them, an all-female group).

Seu, sua, seus, suas

These are also used for the same 3rd person subjects, but the specific form used must match the gender and number of the object/noun being

3rd Person Possessives: De + Pronoun

March 30, 2018

The Ambiguity of Seu, Sua, Seus, and Suas

To review, the possessive pronouns/determiners for the third-person forms are the following:

Subject Possessive Pronoun/Determiner English Equivalent
Ele, Ela, Você Seu Sua Seus Suas His, Her/Hers, Your/Yours(formal)
Eles, Elas Seu Sua Seus Suas Their, Theirs

As you can see, ele he, him, ela she, her, você youformal, eles they, themmasc., and elas they, themfem. all share the same exact possessive determiners! Since the determiners agree with both the number and the gender of the noun that is being possessed (rather than the subject), knowing precisely who we’re talking about is a bit tricky. Let’s see some examples:

Introduction to Possessives

March 30, 2018

Possessive Determiners vs. Possessive Pronouns

In this unit, we’re going to learn about possessive determiners and possessive pronouns in Portuguese, which both serve the function of expressing possession or ownership of something.

In English, we use my, your, his, her, their, and our as possessive determiners and mine, yours, his, hers, theirs, and ours as possessive pronouns.

Possessive determiners precede the noun they are modifying. They tell you to whom a specific item belongs. For example, in the sentence “It is my cat”, you can tell that the word “my” is a determiner because it needs to be followed by a noun (“cat”). “It is my” would not be a complete sentence.

Possessive pronouns replace the noun they are modifying. They convey ownership without telling what exactly is being owned. For example, in the sentence “It is mine”, you can tell that the word “mine” is a possessive pronoun because it can stand on its own in place of a noun.

Possessives in Portuguese

In Portuguese, possessive pronouns and possessive determiners make use of the same words: meu, teu, seu, nosso, vosso, as well as their feminine and plural forms. As you will see below, this means that there are multiple possible translations of a single English word. For both possessive determiners and possessive pronouns, you start by choosing the form that goes with the person possessing something, and then modify that word to match the gender and number of the noun being possessed.

1st and 2nd Person Possessives

March 10, 2018

Mine, Yours, and Ours

Let’s take a closer look at this first group of possessives: meu, teu, nosso and vosso, plus their feminine and plural forms.

Subject Possessive Pronoun/Determiner

(for masculine nouns)

Possessive Pronoun/Determiner

(for feminine nouns)

Eu meu my, mine

meus my, mine

minha my, mine

minhas my, mine

Tu teu your, yours

teus your, yours

tua your, yours

tuas your, yours

Nós nosso our, ours

nossos our, ours

nossa our, ours

nossas our, ours

Vós, Vocês vosso your, yours

vossos your, yours

vossa your, yours

vossas your, yours

Gender and Number Agreement

Remember that the pronoun/determiner has to agree in gender and number with the noun it refers to, rather than the person/subject.

For example, if we’re talking about single objects, such as um jornal a newspaper (a masculine noun) or uma revista magazine (a feminine noun), we’d get:

Ser vs. Estar: Two Ways of Being

March 10, 2018

At this point, you’re probably starting to get familiar with the verbs ser to be permanent state and estar to be temporary state. Yet, even with a lot of practice, they are still easy to mix up! Don’t worry: in this unit you’ll learn more about when to use one versus the other.

A Basic Distinction: Ser vs Estar

  • Ser is used to describe permanent states or conditions. It refers to an immutable or long-lasting attribute of the person or object being described. Here’s the verb conjugated in the present tense:

Common Household Items

August 14, 2017

The average home is full of all kinds of objects, pieces of furniture, and appliances. In this unit, we’ll explore the most common objects you’ll find in each room of your house.

The Living Room – Sala de Estar

The room where you’ll likely spend lots of time relaxing with your family and friends is known as a sala de estar the living room. You may invite them to sit on the sofá sofa and enjoy a nice conversation, or perhaps share a meal at the mesa de jantar dining table.

You might watch the televisão television, or perhaps grab a book from the estante bookcase to do some reading.

Ele senta-se no sofá da sala (de estar) a ler um romance. He sits on the living room sofa reading a novel.

Note that it’s common to omit “de estar” and refer to the living room as simply a sala, since it’s usually implied.

The Kitchen – A Cozinha

While preparing your meal in a cozinha the kitchen, you’ll grab some food from o frigorífico the refrigerator to cook on o fogão the stove or in o micro-ondas the microwave.

In the kitchen you might also find

Types of Homes and Rooms

July 11, 2017

If you plan to comprar to buy or arrendar to rent property a place in Portugal, here are some of the main types of housing you have to choose from:

Types of Housing

  • um quarto A single room – A private bedroom for yourself in a house shared with other people.
  • um apartamento a flat, apartment – A complete, unshared home, but in um prédio a building shared with others.
    • You could also categorize this as um estúdio a studio apartment which has fewer divisions, or perhaps an apartment with two floors, which, just like in English, is called um duplex a duplex.
  • uma vivenda A detached house – A house that is not connected to any other others, which might even contain um quintal a garden.
  • casas geminadas semi-detached houses – Somewhere in between a detached house and an apartment, which share a single common wall to form a two-unit building.
  • uma quinta farm – A larger property in which the residential function of the building is combined with agricultural work.

Aquele casal comprou um apartamento no sétimo andar. That couple bought an apartment on the seventh floor.

A minha família tem uma quinta no campo. My family has a farm on the countryside.

Types of Rooms

Now that you’ve described the type of home, let’s take a look inside:

3rd Person Possessives: Seu and Sua

June 18, 2017

His, Hers, Yours, and Theirs

There are just a few more possessives to learn:

Subject Possessive Pronoun/Determiner English Equivalent
Ele, Ela, Você Seu Sua Seus Suas His, Her/Hers, Your/Yours (formal)
Eles, Elas Seu Sua Seus Suas Their, Theirs

See what happens there? The pronouns/determiners for the third-person singular (+ você) and the third-person plural are all the same!

Gender and Number Agreement

Once again, the pronouns or determiners must agree with the respective noun, not with the subject!

If we’re talking about single objects such as um carro a car (masc. noun) and uma mota a motorcycle (fem. noun), here’s what we get:

The Verb “Ser”

June 18, 2017

Ser To be is one of the most fundamental and important Portuguese verbs. It also happens to be an irregular verb, which helps explain why the conjugations below look quite different from the verb’s infinitive form. For now, we’ll focus on ser in the presente do indicativo present tense:

Causal Subordinating Conjunctions

June 12, 2017

Causal subordinating conjunctions (conjunções subordinativas causais) introduce the reason or cause for what was said in the independent clause.

porque because

visto que since

como as

Examples:

Intro to Subordinating Conjunctions

June 12, 2017

Conjunções subordinativas Subordinating conjunctions join an oração subordinante independent clause to a oração subordinada dependent clause

The conjunction is always found in the dependent part of the sentence, or dependent clause. This is the part that could not stand on its own as a complete sentence.

The independent clause is the part of the sentence that does not contain the conjunction and would still be a complete idea if the dependent part of the sentence were removed.

Subordinating conjunctions can be divided into the following main categories:

Final Subordinating Conjunctions

June 12, 2017

Final subordinating conjunctions (conjunções subordinativas finais) describe the purpose for the event or action described in the independent clause.

para to

a fim de in order to

Examples:

Temporal Subordinating Conjunctions

June 12, 2017

Temporal subordinating conjunctions (conjunções subordinativas temporais) tell us when the action or event described in the independent clause has occurred or is occurring.

quando when

enquanto while

sempre que whenever

assim que as soon as

How to Address People Formally vs. Informally

May 31, 2017

Grammatically, it doesn’t take too long to learn the basics of addressing someone formally versus informally. But the most challenging aspects for estrangeiros foreigners tend to be the decisions that have to be made on a social level – not only understanding when it’s best to speak to someone formally, but choosing between the subtle variations of how formal language is used.

Even the natives (like Rui! 🇵🇹) have a hard time dissecting some of these unspoken social rules, so our aim is to make this the definitive resource of how to speak formally vs. informally in European Portuguese, and all the grey areas in between.

The Easy Stuff

Before we get into the nitty-gritty, we’ll start with the easy pronouns first: those which don’t have formal or informal variations.

First person

There is no distinction between formal and informal for the first person pronouns.

When talking about yourself, you’ll use Eu I. Piece of cake!

When talking about yourself along with others, you’ll use:

Introduction to Adjectives

April 28, 2017

Adjetivos Adjectives are words that describe the attributes of a person or object (noun), including color, size, shape, relative age, and more.

Adjectives need to agree in gender and number with the noun they describe:

O carro é caro The car is expensive

A televisão é cara The television is expensive

Os carros são caros The cars are expensive

Today, Yesterday, and Tomorrow

March 26, 2017

Here’s how we refer to the present day, the day before, and the next day:

hoje today
ontem yesterday
amanhã tomorrow

Now let’s put them into context:

Hoje é sexta(-feira). Today is Friday.
O jogo foi ontem às quatro da tarde (16h00). The game was yesterday at 4 in the afternoon.
O inverno começa amanhã. Winter starts tomorrow.

By combining the terms antes before and depois after with ontem and amanhã, you can also form expressions to refer to

Relationships of Time

March 26, 2017

Let’s explore some examples of the most common words used to talk about the order and relationships among different events in time.

Current Time

Agora Now is the term we use to refer to the present.

O filme vai começar agora. The movie will start now.

Agora está muito frio. Now it’s very cold.

Previous and Future Time

We use antes before to refer to the past and depois after to refer to the future.

Seasons of the Year

March 26, 2017

The seasons of the year are called as estações do ano the seasons of the year in Portuguese.

Their names have Latin origins, which by now you may have noticed is very common in Portuguese. (Don’t you wish you had paid more attention to Latin in school? 😜 ) Just like English, the seasons of the year are not capitalized in Portuguese.

primavera spring
verão summer
outono autumn
inverno winter