Pronomes clíticos Clitic pronouns are one of the trickiest subjects to learn and master in Portuguese. But don’t despair — we’re here to help! Throughout these lessons you’ll learn how to use clitic object pronouns correctly, but first you should understand more about the difference between direct and indirect objects.
The objects of a sentence can be represented in various ways, the most common being nouns and pronouns. Some verbs don’t need objects for the sentence to make sense, while others demand them. These are called transitive verbs.
For example, take the English phrase “She wants”. That sounds incomplete, right? In English, want is a transitive verb, so you need more information. What does she want? “She wants that car.” Now it’s a complete sentence, with “that car” as the direct object.
A complemento direto direct object answers the questions what? or who?, and therefore shows a direct connection with the main verb, complementing it.
Let’s look at a few examples in Portuguese:
Ela chamou a mãe. Ela chamou-a. She called her mom. She called her.
Eles vestiram as t-shirts. Eles vestiram-nas. They put the t-shirts on. They put them on.
As you can see, in the first example, the verb chamar to call was performed directly to the mom, so a mãe the mom is the direct object of the sentence. She called whom? The mom. Since mom is a female direct object, you replace it with the clitic pronoun a.
The same goes for the second sentence: They put on what? The t-shirts. So the t-shirts are the direct object. Because this is the plural of a female direct object, you would think it would be replaced by the clitic pronoun as, but since the verb vestiram ends in -am, you have to use nas. (This is a rule that makes the word easier to pronounce. You will learn more about this inflected form in this lesson.)
We also have complementos indiretos indirect objects, which are objects that are connected to the main verb by a preposition, such as a to. You can locate the indirect object by asking a question like to whom?, from whom?, or for whom? because the person (or object) is indirectly affected by the main verb. Let’s take a look at some examples:
Ele roubou as bolachas à amiga. He stole the cookies from his friend.
What did he steal? The cookies. That’s the direct object. From whom? From his friend. That’s the indirect object. Notice the preposition à making the connection.
Ele roubou-lhe as bolachas. He stole the cookies from her.
The questions have the same answer but now the indirect object is represented by the clitic pronoun lhe. (Keep in mind that when you use a clitic pronoun as an indirect object, it is never preceded by a preposition.)
Sentences can have indirect objects without direct objects, and vice-versa, and they can also have both, as seen in the example above. If both are present, and no clitic pronouns are involved, there’s no particular order in which they should appear. The sentence Dei um casaco à minha mãe. I gave a jacket to my mom. has the same meaning as Dei à minha mãe um casaco. I gave my mom a jacket.. The order starts to matter when you use clitic pronouns, however.
Ela deu-lhes um presente ontem. She gave them a gift yesterday.
This is how this sentence would normally appear, with the verb first (deu), followed by the indirect object pronoun (–lhes), followed by the direct object (um presente).
You could re-write that sentence differently, placing the pronoun before the verb (with ontem/yesterday removed). The examples below are technically correct and make sense, but are not common in European Portuguese. The first one is either used in poetry or when you want to sound like Yoda, from Star Wars, while the second is commonly found in Brazilian Portuguese.
Um presente ela lhes deu. A gift she gave them.
Ela lhes deu um presente. She gave them a gift.
The Bottom Line on Word Order
The common practice is to place an indirect object (represented by clitic pronouns) before the direct object.
If the sentence is in question form or negative form, however, then the pronoun precedes the verb.
Ela não lhes deu um presente. She didn't give them a gift.