In this lesson, we’ll review a topic we’ve covered before, which is Portuguese demonstratives – este, esta, esse, essa, aquele, and aquela – as well as their plural forms. In Portuguese, demonstrative determiners indicate where something is in relation to to the speaker and listener in terms of place or time, and must agree in gender and number with the noun they define.
Este(s) & Esta(s)
Este (masculine) and esta (feminine) are the singular form equivalents of “this” in English. These determiners are used to refer to specific things or persons that are close to the speaker. Examples:
Este chocolate é demasiado doce! This chocolate is too sweet!
Esta sanduíche é o meu almoço. This sandwich is my lunch.
Estes (masculine) and estas (feminine) are the plural forms of este and esta, and correspond to “these” in English. Examples:
Estes sapatos vão bem com o teu fato. These shoes go well with your suit.
Estas caixas vão para o armazém. These boxes go to the warehouse.
Esse(s) & Essa(s)
Esse (masculine) and essa (feminine) are the singular form equivalents to “that” in English. These determiners are used to refer to specific things or persons that are slightly distant from the speaker, or close to the listener. Examples:
Esse computador não funciona. That computer doesn’t work.
Essa senhora é a tua bisavó. That lady is your great-grandmother.
Esses (masculine) and essas (feminine) are the plural forms of esse and essa. They indicate the same implied distance and correspond to “those” in English. Examples:
Esses lápis são para meter na mochila. Be sure to put those pencils in the backpackBE - rucksack.
Essas canetas são azuis? Are those pens blue?
Aquele(s) & Aquela(s)
Aquele (masculine) and aquela (feminine) are also singular form equivalents to “that” in English, but with a difference. These determiners are used to refer to specific things or persons that are far from both the speaker and the listener. Examples:
Aquele gorro é teu? Is that cap yours?
Aquela é a chave do sótão. That is the key to the attic.
Aqueles (masculine) and aquelas (feminine) are the plural forms of aquele and aquela. They indicate the same implied distance and correspond to “those” in English.
Aqueles rapazes estão vestidos de azul. Those boys are dressed in blue.
Aquelas janelas estão tão sujas! Those windows are so dirty!