Em can be combined with variable and invariable demonstratives to form a number of very useful contractions.
Remember that all the same rules for demonstratives remain valid when they appear in the following contractions.
|Relative Position / Number||Demonstrative (masc./fem./invariable)||Contraction (masc./fem./invariable)||English|
|Near the speaker (singular):||este/esta/isto||neste/nesta/nisto||in this|
|Near the speaker (plural):||estes/estas/—||nestes/nestas/—||in these|
|Near the listener (singular):||esse/essa/isso||nesse/nessa/nisso||in that|
|Near the listener (plural):||esses/essas/—||nesses/nessas/—||in those|
|Away from both (singular):||aquele/aquela/aquilo||naquele/naquela/naquilo||in that|
|Away from both (plural):||aqueles/aquelas/—||naqueles/naquelas/—||in those|
These contractions can be used to indicate positions, movement or time, to identify something more clearly, and so on.
Eu vou neste carro naquela direção I'll go in this car in that direction
Nada pode ser feito nesses casos Nothing can be done in those cases
Muitas coisas eram diferentes naqueles tempos Many things were different in those times
Remember that contractions built from invariable demonstrative pronouns, as expected, can never be followed by nouns, and are usually used to describe things that are unknown or more abstract:
Não me vou envolver nisto I won't get involved in this