Combining "Em" with Demonstratives

The preposition em paused audio playing audio Play slow audio Play normal audio in can be combined with variable and invariable demonstratives to form a number of very useful contractions.
Remember that all the same rules for demonstratives remain valid when they appear in the following contractions.

Em + Variable Demonstratives

Relative Position Demonstrative Contraction
Near the speaker: este paused audio playing audio Play slow audio Play normal audio this
esta paused audio playing audio Play slow audio Play normal audio this
estes paused audio playing audio Play slow audio Play normal audio these
estas paused audio playing audio Play slow audio Play normal audio these
neste paused audio playing audio Play slow audio Play normal audio
nesta paused audio playing audio Play slow audio Play normal audio
nestes paused audio playing audio Play slow audio Play normal audio
nestas paused audio playing audio Play slow audio Play normal audio
Near the listener: esse paused audio playing audio Play slow audio Play normal audio that
essa paused audio playing audio Play slow audio Play normal audio that
esses paused audio playing audio Play slow audio Play normal audio those
essas paused audio playing audio Play slow audio Play normal audio those
nesse paused audio playing audio Play slow audio Play normal audio
nessa paused audio playing audio Play slow audio Play normal audio
nesses paused audio playing audio Play slow audio Play normal audio
nessas paused audio playing audio Play slow audio Play normal audio
Away from both: aquele paused audio playing audio Play slow audio Play normal audio that
aquela paused audio playing audio Play slow audio Play normal audio that
aqueles paused audio playing audio Play slow audio Play normal audio those
aquelas paused audio playing audio Play slow audio Play normal audio those
naquele paused audio playing audio Play slow audio Play normal audio
naquela paused audio playing audio Play slow audio Play normal audio
naqueles paused audio playing audio Play slow audio Play normal audio
naquelas paused audio playing audio Play slow audio Play normal audio

These contractions can be used to indicate positions, movement or time, to identify something more clearly, and so on.
Eu vou neste carro naquela direção paused audio playing audio Play slow audio Play normal audio I'll go in this car in that direction
Nada pode ser feito nesses casos paused audio playing audio Play slow audio Play normal audio Nothing can be done in those cases
Muitas coisas eram diferentes naqueles tempos paused audio playing audio Play slow audio Play normal audio Many things were different in those times

Em + Invariable Demonstratives

Similarly, em combines with the invariable demonstratives (isto, isso, and aquilo) to form:

  • Near the speaker: nisto paused audio playing audio Play slow audio Play normal audio in this
  • Near the listener: nisso paused audio playing audio Play slow audio Play normal audio in that
  • Away from both: naquilo paused audio playing audio Play slow audio Play normal audio in that

Remember that contractions built from invariable demonstrative pronouns, as expected, can never be followed by nouns, and are usually used to describe things that are unknown or more abstract:
Não me vou envolver nisto paused audio playing audio Play slow audio Play normal audio I won't get involved in this

Comments

  • It may be useful if the English “in this”, “in these” etc were placed between the Relative Position/Number and Demonstrative?

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