At this point, you’re probably a bit familiar with the verbs ser to be permanent state and estar to be temporary state. And yet, sometimes, you might still be getting them mixed up! Worry not: in this unit, you’ll learn exactly how to use one and the other.
A Basic Distinction: Ser vs Estar
The basic distinction between the two is pretty simple at first:
- Ser is used to describe permanent states or conditions. It refers to an immutable or long-lasting attribute of the person or object we’re describing. Here’s the verb conjugated in the present tense (presente do indicativo):
- Estar is used for temporary states or conditions:
Using Estar and Ser in phrases
Despite the seemingly simple distinction, even advanced Portuguese speakers often have to think twice about which of the two verbs should be used, as it’s not always clear.
For example, the same adjective can convey a different meaning depending on whether it’s combined with ser or estar:
Tu és magra! You are thin! referring to long-term body type
Tu estás magra! You are thin! …compared to other days
The former, with ser, suggests that thinness is intrinsic to her; it’s how her body always looks.
The latter, with estar, could be graciously accepted as rewarding praise for successful diet or exercise efforts… or she might take it as a backhanded compliment, implying that while she is thin now, that wasn’t necessarily true before. (You can only hope she doesn’t kill you after hearing that! 😂)
Here are a couple more examples:
- Permanent physical features – ser: Ela é muito alta. She is very tall.
- Temporary physical states – estar: Nós estamos muito cansados. We are very tired.
- Permanent (or at least long-term) personality traits – ser: Ele é muito tímido. He is very shy.
- Temporary emotional traits – estar: Tu estás muito nervoso, relaxa! You are very nervous, relax!
Note that when describing professions, only ser is accepted.
On the other hand, to describe an action happening now, only estar can be used (as an auxiliary verb).
Ele está a trabalhar. He is working.