As you’ll recall, variable demonstratives have to agree not only in gender and location, but also in number.
For every variable demonstrative covered in the previous lesson (which were all singular), there is also a plural counterpart.
It might sound scary, but you’re in luck: all you have to do is take the singular form and add an “s“!
|Relative Location||Masculine (Singular/Plural)||Feminine (Singular/Plural)||English (Singular/Plural)|
|Near the speaker:||este/estes||esta/estas||this/these|
|Near the listener:||esse/esses||essa/essas||that/those|
|Away from both:||aquele/aqueles||aquela/aquelas||that/those|
As you can see, these is to this as estes/estas is to este/esta, and so on. Once you master the singular demonstratives from the last lesson, you can easily come up with its plural, and all the same rules about gender and location apply.
TheseEsta mobília é bonita, mas estes cortinados são feios. This furniture is beautiful, but these curtains are ugly.
Gender: Cortinado is masculine, so if there is one curtain, we start with “este,” a masculine, singular variable demonstrative pronoun.
Number: Since there is more than one curtain, we just add an “s”, resulting in “estes“.
Gender: Mobília is feminine, so we choose “esta,” a feminine, singular variable demonstrative pronoun.
Number: Since just like English, “furniture” is a singular noun (even though it can describe multiple pieces), we don’t add an “s,” so it remains “esta“.
Location: Because the furniture is also near the person speaking, (“this” furniture), we used estathis instead of essathat near the listener or aquelathat far away
In both cases above, the objects are close to us, the speaker.
The following example describes items near the listener as well as far from both of you. Notice that sofás and cadeiras are both plural, so we added –s to esse and aquela to create the correct forms: esses and aquelas.
Esses sofás são confortáveis, mas aquelas cadeiras não. Those sofas near you are comfortable, but those chairs far from both are not.