We’ve seen that in Portuguese, the possessive pronouns/determiners for the third person are the following:
|Subject||Possessive Pronoun/Determiner||English Equivalent|
|Ele, Ela||Seu, Sua, Seus, Suas||His, Her/Hers, Your/Yours (formal)|
|Eles, Elas||Seu, Sua, Seus, Suas||Their, Theirs|
As you can see, the third person singular – você, ele and ela – and the third person plural – eles and elas – share the same exact pronouns. Since the pronoun agrees with both the person and the gender of the noun that is being possessed, knowing precisely who we’re talking about is a bit of a mess. Let’s see some examples:
O seu sofá é muito confortável. Her sofa is very comfortable.
A sua caldeirada de marisco é de morrer. His seafood stew is to die for.
Os seus sapatos são feitos à mão. Her shoes are handmade.
As suas encomendas foram enviadas para trás. His packages were sent back.
Confusing, right? To make things clearer and avoid confusion, Portuguese also uses four other determiners – dele, dela, deles, delas. These are formed by contracting the preposition de of, from with the third-person subject pronouns. Let’s see what they look like:
De + ele -> Dele of + him -> his
De + ela -> Dela of + her -> her
De + eles -> Deles of + them -> their
De + elas -> Delas of + them -> their
Both forms are correct, but using “de” + the pronoun is more specific in the way it references the intended subject.
O seu casaco e a sua t-shirt. His coat and his t-shirt? Her coat? Their t-shirt? Who knows?
O casaco e a t-shirt dela. Her coat and t-shirt. With no other possibility.
Note that their placement in the sentence is different. These new determiners dele(a)/deles(as) are always placed after the noun, and instead of agreeing in gender and number with that noun, they agree with the person that owns the noun.
Because it avoids ambiguity, the third-person possessive with dele, dela, deles and delas is very convenient and more often used in everyday life compared to seu, sua, seus and suas. Let’s look at a few more examples:
Deles is used for the third person plural, referring to a masculine subject. It is equivalent to “their” in English. Example:
As notas deles pioraram este semestre. Their grades worsened this semester.