In this lesson, we’ll learn about quantificadores universais universal quantifiers. Universal quantifiers are quantifiers that apply to every element of a given group. In English, this would include words like all, none, any, both, and every. Let’s learn about each of the words used to express these concepts in Portuguese.
Todo, Toda, Todos, Todas
Todo (masculine) and toda (feminine) are the singular form equivalents to “all”, “whole”, “every”, or “entire” in English. Examples:
Limpei este quarto todo. I cleaned this entire room.
Passei a manhã toda a estudar. I spent the whole morning studying.
Todos (masculine) and todas (feminine) are the plural forms of todo and toda, and maintain the same meaning. Examples:
Todos os patinhos sabem bem nadar! Every duckling knows how to swim!
Vou tirar daqui estas calças todas. I’m putting away all of these trousers.
Nenhum, Nenhuma, Nenhuns, Nenhumas
Nenhum (masculine) and nenhuma (feminine) are singular form equivalents to the English “none” or “not any”. Examples:
Nenhum destes cartões é meu. None of these cards are mine.
Nenhuma destas gravatas é tua? None of these ties are yours?
Nenhuns (masculine) and nenhumas (feminine) are the plural forms of nenhum and nenhuma. Examples:
Não vi erros nenhuns. I did not see any mistakes.
Nenhumas destas botas me agradam. None of these boots are to my liking.
Qualquer is a singular form equivalent to the English “any”, and remains the same for both masculine and feminine. Example:
Qualquer lugar é bom. Any place is fine for me.
Quaisquer is the plural form of qualquer. Examples:
Quaisquer opções têm as suas desvantagens. Any options have their disadvantages.
Ambos (masculine) and ambas (feminine) are equivalent to the English “both”. Example:
Ambos os irmãos são louros. Both brothers are blond.
Eu enviei uma carta a ambas. I sent a letter to both of them.
Cada Each corresponds to the English “each” or “every”. Examples:
Cada um destes bonecos custa 5 euros. Each of these dolls costs 5 euros.
Trouxe um queque para cada pessoa. I brought a muffin for every person.