Com is used to:
- Indicate people or things that are currently together:
- Say what someone or something has:
- Say what someone or something uses:
- Describe an emotion or state:
O atleta competiu com confiança. The athlete competed with confidence.
Though com is usually equivalent to the English with, it can sometimes be equivalent to have, particularly when talking about health and temporary ailments. Examples:
Não posso ir hoje, estou com gripe. I can’t come today, I have the flu. Literally: "I am with flu."
Estou com uma enxaqueca. I have a migraine. Literally: "I am with a migraine."
Contractions derived from com
Com can also form contractions when combined with some object pronouns:
- Com + mim me = comigo with me
- Com + ti me = contigo with you informal
- Com + si me = consigo with you formal
- Com + nós = connosco with us plural
- Com + vocês = convosco with you plural
Note: In a very formal context consigo might be used with the meaning of with him/her. But Portuguese speakers will most often say com ele with him or com ela with her, which eliminates any possible confusion. In the plural, this becomes com eles~com elas with them. Examples:
Eu levo o portátil comigo. I’ll bring my laptop with me.
Vais connosco de autocarro ou com eles de comboio? Are you going with us by bus or with them by train?
Desculpe, posso falar consigo? Excuse me, may I speak with you?
Foi muito divertido sair convosco! It was really fun to go out with you!