As mentioned, verbs are split into three groups: Group 1: verbs ending in -AR Group 2: verbs ending in -ER Group 3: verbs ending in -IR Now we’ll deal with the 3rd and final group: IR Verb Endings The -IR verb conjugations are very similar to the -ER verbs, except for one little difference… can […]Read More ›
Indefinite Articles – How to Say “a / an” In Portuguese
We just learned how to say “the car”, but what if you want to talk about “a car,” in general? This is called an indefinite article (artigo indefinido), because we’re talking about an undefined car, rather than a specific instance of a car.
Just like “the“, there are also 4 ways to say “a“. Once again, it depends on the gender and plurality:
- Masculine, single: um carro
- Feminine, single: uma mesa
- Masculine, plural: uns carros
- Feminine, plural: umas mesas
When to use Indefinite Articles
We use artigos indefinidos when we want to talk about a subject or an object without specifying it.Read More ›
Collective numbers are the ones that even in their singular form indicate a group of beings or things:
Eles são um quarteto famoso
They are a famous quartet
They work as a noun and are variable in number:
A médica salvou várias dezenas de pessoas
The doctor saved several dozens of people
In this lesson, we’ll learn about fractional numerals. Fractional numerals (quantificadores fraccionários) define exact fractions, or parts, of a given thing. Let’s have a look at them.
|Quantificador fraccionário||Fractional numeral||Quantificador fraccionário||Fractional numeral|
|meio/metade||half||dezasseis avos||sixteenth (part)|
|terço||third||dezassete avos||seventeenth (part)|
|quarto||fourth||dezoito avos||eighteenth (part)|
|quinto||fifth||dezanove avos||nineteeth (part)|
|sexto||sixth||vinte avos/vigésimo||twentieth (aprt)|
|onze avos/undécimo||eleventh (part)||septuagésimo||seventieth (part)|
|doze avos/duodécimo||twelfth (part)||octogésimo||eightieth (part)|
|treze avos||thirteenth (part)||nonagésimo||nintieth (part)|
|quatorze avos||fourteenth (part)||centésimo||hundredth (part)|
|quinze avos||fifteenth (part)||milésimo||thousandth (part)|
Fractionals, just like multipliers, are paired with the preposition “de” or its prepositional contraction.Read More ›
Multipliers define multiples of a given thing or person. Let’s have a look at a few. Quantificador Multiplicativo Multiplier duplo/dobro twice/double/duplicate triplo/tríplice thrice/triple/triplicate quádruplo quadruple quíntuplo quintuple sêxtuplo sextuple, hextuple sétuplo septuple, heptuple … … Multipliers are always preceded by the definite article “o”, and they’re paired with the preposition “de” or its prepositional contractions. Examples: […]Read More ›
Ordinary numbers tell us the order in which people, animals or things take in a specific series:
A mulher foi a primeira a chegar
The woman was the first to arrive.
They are variable in gender and number:
O homem foi o primeiro a chegar
The man was the first to arrive
What do they do?
Cardinal numbers simply indicate the number of people, animals or things.
Eu tenho três irmãos
I have three brothers
Ela tem dez pássaros
She has ten birds
Vocês compram vinte laranjas
You buy twenty oranges
Invariable, except…Read More ›
In the next 3 units, we’ll learn about Portuguese números
numbers or numerais
Números is just one type of quantificadores
quantifiers, but they are so important that we thought they deserved their unit.
All the other types of quantificadores will be explained in a different unit which you can find later on.
Números tell us the specific, numeric amount of a particular something.
In this lesson, we’ll learn about Portuguese existential quantifiers. Existential quantifiers (quantificadores existenciais) are quantifiers that tell us that there’s a certain group or a certain quantity of elements (nouns), but don’t give us an exact quantity or amount.
Muito, Muita, Muitos, Muitas
Muito (masculine) and muita (feminine) are the singular form equivalents to the English “many”, “very”, “much” or “a lot”. Examples:
Tenho muito medo!
I’m very afraid!
Isto ainda é muita coisa para levar.
This is still a lot to carry.
In this lesson, we’ll learn about Portuguese universal quantifiers. Universal quantifiers (quantificadores universais) are quantifiers that tell us the total and exact amount of elements in a given group.
Todo, Toda, Todos, Todas
Todo (masculine) and toda (feminine) are the singular form equivalents to “all”, “whole”, “every” or “entire” in English. Examples:
Limpei este quarto todo.
I cleaned this entire room.
Passei a manhã toda a estudar.
I spent the whole morning studying.
Todos (masculine) and todas (feminine) are the plural forms of todo and toda, and maintain the same meaning.
In this lesson, we’ll take a look at the last subset of quantifiers: interrogative quantifiers. Interrogative quantifiers (quantificadores interrogativos) introduce questions about quantities. A question using an interrogative quantifier is invariably answered using another quantifier.
Quanto, Quanta, Quantos, Quantas
These quantifiers are already known to us! Quanto (masculine) and quanta (feminine) are singular forms equivalents to “how much” in English. Examples:
Quanto gastaste ontem?
How much did you spend yesterday?
É precisa quanta lã para umas luvas?
How much wool is needed for a pair of gloves?
In this lesson, we’ll learn about relative quantifiers. Relative quantifiers (quantificadores relativos) don’t tell us an actual quantity, but instead tell us about a relative quantity in relation to an unspecified whole. Sounds complicated? Our examples will make everything clear. Quanto, Quanta, Quantos, Quantas Quanto (masculine) and quanta (feminine) are singular forms equivalents to “as […]Read More ›
In this lesson we’ll once again tackle a thorny category of determiner for most learners – we’re referring, of course, to possessive determiners. This is something we’ve covered before, but today we’ll be looking at them in depth. Possessive determiners (determinantes possessivos) are determiners used to establish a relationship of possession between a given subject […]Read More ›
To master Portuguese, it is essential that we tackle determiners. In this unit, we will be looking at a few types of determiners: definite and indefinite articles, demonstrative determiners, indefinite determiners, interrogative determiners, and possessive determiners. Before we delve into the different types of determiners, it is important to learn how to differentiate between determiners […]Read More ›
In this lesson, we’ll take an in-depth look at a topic we’ve broached before, which is Portuguese demonstratives – este/ esse/ aquele/ esta/ essa/ aquela – as well as their plural forms. In this instance, however, they function as determiners! Demonstrative determiners (determinantes demonstrativos) are words that tell us what something is in relation to […]Read More ›
In this lesson we’ll learn about interrogative determiners. Interrogative determiners (determinantes interrogativos) are determiners we use to formulate direct or indirect questions or exclamations. There are only two of them, but they’re very handy determiners indeed! Que Que is equivalent to the English “what”. Example: Qual, Quais Qual is the singular form equivalent to “which” […]Read More ›
In this lesson, we’ll have a look at indefinite determiners. Indefinite determiners (determinantes indefinidos) are words that express an indefinite idea of quality about the noun they’re defining. In Portuguese, indefinite determiners always agree in gender and number with the noun they’re defining. Outro, Outra, Outros, Outras Outro (masculine) and Outra (feminine) are the singular […]Read More ›
In the previous lesson, we learned about possessive determiners and how to use them. But there was one case that we’re sure left some of you scratching your heads. Let’s have a look at our possessive determiners again: Person Determiner Eu o meu/ a minha/ os meus/ as minhas Tu o teu/ a tua/ os […]Read More ›
In this lesson we’ll explore the last two clitic pronouns in Portuguese, nos and vos. Nos Nos is equivalent to the English “us” or “to us”, as it is used for both direct and indirect objects. Examples: Bear in mind that the clitic Nos is also used for second person plural, when the preceding verb form ends […]Read More ›
Reflexive pronouns (pronomes reflexos) are a specific group of object pronouns that we use when the action of a verb is applied to the subject of the sentence. To put it another way, verbs where the subject of the sentence is also the object of the verb’s action. Or in an even simpler way: verbs whose action […]Read More ›
In this lesson, we’ll explore Portuguese definite and indefinite articles. Articles (artigos) are small words that precede and define a noun. In Portuguese, articles always agree in gender and number with the noun they’re defining. Definite Articles Definite articles (artigos definidos) are determiners used to indicate that a thing or person is unique in some […]Read More ›
In this lesson we’ll explore the first two clitic pronouns in Portuguese, me and te. These are two very simple clitics you’ll have no trouble understanding!
Me is equivalent to the English “me” or “to me”, as it is used for both direct and indirect objects. Examples:
Ela chamou-me ao gabinete.
She called me to the office.
Não me parece boa, esta maçã.
This apple doesn’t look good to me.
Te, on the other hand, is equivalent to the English “you” or “to you”, and it is also valid for both direct and indirect objects. Examples:Read More ›
In Portuguese, when we use a verb that asks for both direct and indirect object (and they’re pointed out specifically, i.e. we’re aware of what/who they are), we can contract these two pronouns by adding the third person direct pronouns to the indirect object. Sounds complicated, we know. Let’s see a practical example: In this sentence, […]Read More ›
In this lesson we’ll explore two sets of clitic pronouns: third person singular clitics, and third person plural clitics. Both sets of clitics work in the exact same way. O/A, Os/As Third person direct pronouns are replaced by o/a (standing for “him” and “her”, respectively) for singular and os/as (two different forms of “them”). Examples: […]Read More ›